Late in the afternoon of April 2, 2020 the Small Business Administration (“SBA”) issued Interim Final Rules to implement the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”). This guidance was welcomed by small business owners and lenders who were confused on how specific details of the PPP would work. All questions are not answered. Many details remain up in the air, and frankly the SBA could change the Rule it issued on the 2nd.
In particular this rule says very little, nothing helpful really, on how the loan forgiveness feature of the PPP will work. More on that later. Be very careful on how you apply the proceeds of this loan. Use it only for the purposes outlined below.
Click here to read the entire 31 pages of the Rule. For your convenience I pulled some of the more helpful provisions out for easy reference:
The intent of the Act is that SBA provide relief to America’s small businesses expeditiously.
For example, for loans made under the PPP, SBA will not require the lenders to comply with section 120.150 “What are SBA’s lending criteria?.” SBA will allow lenders to rely on certifications of the borrower in order to determine eligibility of the borrower and use of loan proceeds and to rely on specified documents provided by the borrower to determine qualifying loan amount and eligibility for loan forgiveness. Lenders must comply with the applicable lender obligations set forth in this interim final rule, but will be held harmless for borrowers’ failure to comply with program criteria; remedies for borrower violations or fraud are separately addressed in this interim final rule. The program requirements of the PPP identified in this rule temporarily supersede any conflicting Loan Program Requirement (as defined in 13 CFR 120.10).
Businesses are eligible if they were in operation on February 15, 2020.
How do I calculate the maximum amount I can borrow?
The following methodology, which is one of the methodologies contained in the Act, will be most useful for many applicants.
- Step 1: Aggregate payroll costs (defined in detail below in f.) from the last twelve months for employees whose principal place of residence is the United States.
- Step 2: Subtract any compensation paid to an employee in excess of an annual salary of $100,000 and/or any amounts paid to an independent contractor or sole proprietor in excess of $100,000 per year.
- Step 3: Calculate average monthly payroll costs (divide the amount from Step 2 by 12).
- Step 4: Multiply the average monthly payroll costs from Step 3 by 2.5.
- Step 5: Add the outstanding amount of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) made between January 31, 2020 and April 3, 2020, less the amount of any “advance” under an EIDL COVID-19 loan (because it does not have to be repaid).
What qualifies as “payroll costs?”
Payroll costs consist of compensation to employees (whose principal place of residence is the United States) in the form of salary, wages, commissions, or similar compensation; cash tips or the equivalent (based on employer records of past tips or, in the absence of such records, a reasonable, good-faith employer estimate of such tips); payment for vacation, parental, family, medical, or sick leave; allowance for separation or dismissal; payment for the provision of employee benefits consisting of group health care coverage, including insurance premiums, and retirement; payment of state and local taxes assessed on compensation of employees; and for an independent contractor or sole proprietor, wage, commissions, income, or net earnings from self-employment or similar compensation.
Is there anything that is expressly excluded from the definition of payroll costs?
Yes. The Act expressly excludes the following:
- Any compensation of an employee whose principal place of residence is outside of the United States;
- The compensation of an individual employee in excess of an annual salary of $100,000, prorated as necessary;
- Federal employment taxes imposed or withheld between February 15, 2020 and June 30, 2020, including the employee’s and employer’s share of FICA (Federal Insurance Contributions Act) and Railroad Retirement Act taxes, and income taxes required to be withheld from employees; and
- Qualified sick and family leave wages for which a credit is allowed under sections 7001 and 7003 of the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (Public Law 116–127).
Do independent contractors count as employees for purposes of PPP loan calculations?
No, independent contractors have the ability to apply for a PPP loan on their own so they do not count for purposes of a borrower’s PPP loan calculation.
What is the interest rate on a PPP loan?
The interest rate will be one percent (1%).
Maturity date of the loan = 2 years.
When will I have to begin paying principal and interest on my PPP loan?
You will not have to make any payments for six months following the date of disbursement of the loan. However, interest will continue to accrue on PPP loans during this six-month deferment. The Act authorizes the Administrator to defer loan payments for up to one year. The Administrator determined, in consultation with the Secretary, that a six-month deferment period is appropriate in light of the modest interest rate (one percent) on PPP loans and the loan forgiveness provisions contained in the Act.
Can my PPP loan be forgiven in whole or in part?
Yes. The amount of loan forgiveness can be up to the full principal amount of the loan and any accrued interest. That is, the borrower will not be responsible for any loan payment if the borrower uses all of the loan proceeds for forgivable purposes described below and employee and compensation levels are maintained. However, not more than 25 percent of the loan forgiveness amount may be attributable to nonpayroll costs. Limiting non-payroll costs to 25 percent of the forgiveness amount will align these elements of the program, and will also help to ensure that the finite appropriations available for PPP loan forgiveness are directed toward payroll protection. SBA will issue additional guidance on loan forgiveness.
Do independent contractors count as employees for purposes of PPP loan forgiveness?
No, independent contractors have the ability to apply for a PPP loan on their own, so they do not count for purposes of a borrower’s PPP loan forgiveness.
How can PPP loans be used?
The proceeds of a PPP loan are to be used for:
- payroll costs (as defined in the Act and in 2.f.);
- costs related to the continuation of group health care benefits during periods of paid sick, medical, or family leave, and insurance premiums;
- mortgage interest payments (but not mortgage prepayments or principal payments);
- rent payments;
- utility payments;
- interest payments on any other debt obligations that were incurred before February 15, 2020; and/or
- refinancing an SBA EIDL loan made between January 31, 2020 and April 3, 2020. If you received an SBA EIDL loan from January 31, 2020 through April 3, 2020, you can apply for a PPP loan. If your EIDL loan was not used for payroll costs, it does not affect your eligibility for a PPP loan. If your EIDL loan was used for payroll costs, your PPP loan must be used to refinance your EIDL loan. Proceeds from any advance up to $10,000 on the EIDL loan will be deducted from the loan forgiveness amount on the PPP loan. However, at least 75 percent of the PPP loan proceeds shall be used for payroll costs. For purposes of determining the percentage of use of proceeds for payroll costs, the amount of any EIDL refinanced will be included. For purposes of loan forgiveness, however, the borrower will have to document the proceeds used for payroll costs in order to determine the amount of forgiveness. While the Act provides that PPP loan proceeds may be used for the purposes listed above and for other allowable uses described in section 7(a) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 636(a)), the Administrator believes that finite appropriations and the structure of the Act warrant a requirement that borrowers use a substantial portion of the loan proceeds for payroll costs, consistent with Congress’ overarching goal of keeping workers paid and employed. As with the similar limitation on the forgiveness amount explained earlier, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary, has determined that 75 percent is an appropriate percentage that will align this element of the program with the loan amount, 75 percent of which is equivalent to eight weeks of payroll. This limitation on use of the loan funds will help to ensure that the finite appropriations available for these loans are directed toward payroll protection, as each loan that is issued depletes the appropriation, regardless of whether portions of the loan are later forgiven.
What happens if PPP loan funds are misused?
If you use PPP funds for unauthorized purposes, SBA will direct you to repay those amounts. If you knowingly use the funds for unauthorized purposes, you will be subject to additional liability such as charges for fraud. If one of your shareholders, members, or partners uses PPP funds for unauthorized purposes, SBA will have recourse against the shareholder, member, or partner for the unauthorized use.
As I said above, these are selected highlights, please review the entire Rule to make sure you understand them in their entirety. Your accountant and banker can also be very helpful in interpreting what you need to do. You can also seek the advice of an attorney. We are setting legal coaching sessions to answer questions about the PPP and other aspects of the COVID-19 impact on entrepreneurs. Call 901.737.7740 to set a time for us to talk. There is a $350.00 fee for the coaching session and limited follow up.
Check out our video below of Alan discussing this situation for even more details.